Abstract of the Week: Immediate Effects of a Dynamic Rotation-Specific Warm-Up on X-Factor and X-Factor Stretch in the Amateur Golfer

Two authors of this week’s featured study include North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy’s own Kathy Berglund, PT, DSc, ATC, OCS, COMT, FAAOMPT and Liz Henry, PT, DSc, OCS, COMT, FAAOMPT:

Immediate Effects of a Dynamic Rotation-Specific Warm-Up on X-Factor and X-Factor Stretch in the Amateur Golfer, by Henry E, Berglund K, Millar L, Locke F. was published this month in the International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy.

Photo Credit: http://www.freeimages.com/photo/golf-1-1247080

NAIOMT CFI and co-author Liz Henry, PT, DSc, OCS, COMT, FAAOMPT & weighs in:

This study was performed to fulfill the Capstone requirement for my DSc degree at Andrews University. I moved to North Carolina 5 years ago and found myself in the land of golf, working with golfers of all levels. Teaching and touring golf professionals understand the importance of warming-up to improve their performance and prevent injury. I have found it challenging to get amateur players to perform a warm-up other than hitting range balls, which we know is not enough. This study examined and golf-specific warm-up that could be performed on the range without any equipment other than a golf club.

Photo Credit: http://www.freeimages.com/photo/golfer-1437008

I use a 3-D golf swing analysis system called K-Vest to perform biomechanical analysis of a client’s golf swing. I incorporate NAIOMT style quadrant eval and manual therapy techniques to optimize mobility and stability. Combining these 2 types of evaluation, and benchmarks established by the Titelist Performance Institute, I build a golfer’s swing from the ground up.


Background: Recent evidence suggests performing a warm-up prior to golf can improve performance and reduce injuries. While some characteristics of effective golf warm-ups have been determined, no studies have explored the immediate effects of a rotational-specific warm-up with elements of motor control on the biomechanical aspects of the full X-Factor and X-Factor Stretch during the golf swing.

Methods: Thirty-six amateur golfers (mean ±SD age: 64 ± 8 years old; 75% male) were randomized into a Dynamic Rotation-Specific Warm-up group (n=20), or a Sham Warm-up group (n=16). X-Factor and X-Factor Stretch were measured at baseline and immediately following the warm-up. Mixed model ANCO- VAs were used to determine if a Group*Time interaction existed for each variable with group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable.

Results: The mixed model ANCOVAs did not reveal a statistically significant group*time interaction for X-Factor or X-Factor Stretch. There was not a significant main effect for time for X-Factor but there was for X-Factor Stretch. These results indicate that neither group had a significant effect on improving X-Factor, however performing either warm-up increased X-Factor Stretch without significant difference between the two.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that performing the Dynamic Rotation-Specific Warm-up did not increase X-Factor or X-Factor Stretch when controlled for age compared to the Sham Warm-up. Further study is needed to determine the long-term effects of the Dynamic Rotation-Specific Warm-up on performance factors of the golf swing while examining across all ages.

Read the free full text here.

NAIOMT Faculty Kathy Bergland, PT, DSc, ATC, OCS, COMT, FAAOMPT

Upcoming Courses with Kathy Berglund, PT, DSc, ATC, OCS, COMT, FAAOMPT:

Lumbopelvic Spine I (Baltimore, MD) +5 hrs online Register March 12 – March 13, 2016

Cervical Spine I (Gaithersburg, MD) +5 hrs online
Register April 2 – April 3, 2016

Lumbopelvic Spine II – Hip (Berrien Springs, MI)
Register April 10 – April 11, 2016

Lower Extremity (Berrien Springs, MI)
Register April 12 – April 13, 2016

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